Pulmonary embolism is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs. In most cases, pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots that travel to the lungs from the legs or, rarely, other parts of the body (Deep Vein Thrombosis). An Inferior Vena Cava Filter is a small device that can stop blood clots from going up into the lungs. The inferior vena cava is a large vein in the middle of your body. An IVC filter is a small, wiry device. When the filter is placed in your IVC, the blood flows past the filter. Once the filter is placed, the heart then pumps the blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen.It catches blood clots and stops them from moving up to the heart and lungs. The device is put in during a short surgery.

A drug-eluting stent (DES) is a coronary stent placed into narrowed, diseased peripheral or coronary arteries that slowly releases a drug to block cell proliferation.This prevents fibrosis that, together with clots (thrombi), could otherwise block the stented artery, a process called restenosis. The stent is usually placed within the peripheral or coronary artery during an angioplasty procedure.

Patients with atrial fibrillation and spells due to slow heart rate are also candidates for pacemaker implantation. A pacemaker system consists of a pulse generator and a lead. The pulse generator is where the battery and the electronics reside. It is connected to a lead or a wire, through which the pulse generator communicates with the heart.